Publicaciones recientes

Ramirez-Ortega JM, A. Estrada-Torres y E. De Luna. 2017

A comparative SEM study of morphological characters in Cribraria. MYCOTAXON 132 (2): 391-419.

Abstract—Cribraria spp. were examined by SEM to determine detailed morphological features of the spore, nodes, and calyculus and to identify and describe the characters and character states for each microstructure examined. The character states defined include six for spore ornamentation (warted, crested, spiny, subreticulate, banded-reticulate, grooved-reticulate), three for node types (rounded, enlarged, irregular), and four for the upper calyculus margin (ribbed, irregular, toothed, entire). Our SEM studies show that interpretations of spore ornamentation character states based solely on LM may be incorrect and that SEM observations are crucial for discovering new characters and interpreting taxonomic morphological features.

Key words—Cribrariaceae, morphology, myxomycetes, plasmodial granules, slime molds.

Plate 8. Cribraria purpurea. a. Peridial net; b. Nodes flattened without free ends; c. Spores with
surface ornamentation composed of crests; d. Spores and plasmodic granules. Cribraria rubiginosa.
e. Flattened node with spores and plasmodic granules; f. Inner surface details of calyculus; g. Spore
details of surface ornamentation showing warts and a reticulum groove crossing the spore; h. Spore
seen in angular view. Scale bars: a =100 μm; b = 20 μm; c, d = 2 μm; e, f = 10 μm; g, h = 1 μm.

Ospina S. y E. De Luna. 2017

Phylogenetic analysis of landmark data and the evolution of cranial shape and diets in species of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). ZOOMORPHOLOGY 136(2): 251-265.


Species in genus Myotis exhibit a pattern of cranial variation associated with insectivorous, facultative piscivorous, and truly piscivorous diets, which has not been studied in a phylogenetic context. Variation in landmark configurations of five cranial structures in 22 Myotis species was analyzed with phylogenetic methods to infer evolution of shape. Our goals were to detect changes in cranial morphology and to correlate these with concerted changes among diets. A reference phylogeny was estimated using a combined data matrix with previously available Cyt-b and RAG2 sequences and our five configurations of landmarks. We included the insectivorous Kerivoula papillosa Temminck, 1840, Noctilio leporinus Linnaeus, 1758 (piscivorous), and N. albiventris Desmarest, 1818 (insectivorous) as out-groups. The optimization of five landmark configurations on the combined phylogeny shows no evidence of convergent shape changes among species with similar piscivorous diets. Our findings document that facultative piscivory does not imply the same particular morphotype. In four cranial features, there is small shape change between estimated ancestral shapes and seven observed descendant shapes for the piscivorous species. Only the mandible shows major changes from insectivorous ancestors to facultative piscivorous or piscivorous Myotis.


Piscivory Geometric morphometrics Myotis Phylogenetic morphometrics 

Fig. 3 Concerted change in shape, diet, and trawling in the combined phylogeny of Myotis (as in Fig. 2). Colors of branches and taxon names indicate similar diets; facultatively, piscivorous bats are marked in grey, piscivorous species in black dotted line and bold, insectivorous species in black. The foraging strategy is indicated with a label after taxon name, A aerial-hawking, T trawling, and OG overgleaning. At nodes 47, 40, 28, 48, and 35, the landmark configuration is the estimated ancestral shape of the process area (character 3). Double headed arrows show tendency of change. Arrows point to landmark displacements in character 3 interpreted as homoplasy in facultatively piscivorous species. Concerted changes between shape and diet are marked with five half filled circles on branches. In all landmark configurations, deformation vectors at each point indicate displacements from the ancestral configurations to each of the descendant configurations, as optimized with spatial parsimony with TNT.

Rochmann, D y E. De Luna. 2017

Prototyping the complex biological form of the beetle Deltochilum lobipes via 2D geometric morphometrics landmarks and descriptive geometry for 3D printing. Computer-Aided Design and Applications 14: 107-116.

ABSTRACT. In this paper, we present research carried out in the Morphometric Laboratory, Institute of Ecology, in Xalapa, Veracruz, México, which consisted of creating a new method that links geometric morphometrics techniques and descriptive geometry. In our new method a collection of five photographs was used to tag each morphological point called “Landmarks” that defines the numerical values of the coordinates “x” and “y” in a Cartesian space to generate through the coordinates “x,” “y” and “z” the geometry of the biological form of a beetle, across surfaces, meshes and solids. In this research we worked with the beetle Deltochilum Lobipes that belong to the Scarabaeidae family. We made two prototypes in 3D printed, from the 2D coordinates of morphological points which were obtained through the tpsDig2 program. This research documents evidence that supports the hypothesis of our project: “the quantitative descriptor of shape and size in 2D, contribute in the modeling of complex geometric structures in 3D”.

De Luna, E. 2016.

Typification, taxonomy, and worldwide distribution of Braunia secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp. (Hedwigiaceae). Journal of Bryology 38: 286-294.

Diagnosis and illustrations are given for Braunia secunda (Hook.) Bruch & Schimp., and a Humboldt and Bonpland specimen (BM) is selected as the lectotype. Also a collection by Arséne (BM) is designated as the lectotype for B. secunda var. crassiretis Thér. This variety is retained as synonym of B. secunda. The species concept of B. secunda is revised and a provisional key is provided to help in the identification of 23 species of Braunia, based on examination of herbarium specimens worldwide. About half of specimens from Mexico actually represent another species, B. andrieuxii Lorentz. All material examined from India, previously identified as B. secunda belongs to B. macropelma (Müll.Hal.) A.Jaeger, whereas collections from Africa are actually B. rupestris (Mitt.) A.Jaeger, B. entodonticarpa Müll.Hal., or B. diaphana (Müll.Hal.) A.Jaeger. These and other species should no longer be considered synonyms of B. secunda. The worldwide distribution of the species is documented for the United States, Mexico, Guatemala, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Venezuela, and Bolivia.

Keywords: Hedwigiales, keys, lectotypification, moss, nomenclature, systematics.

Becerra-Hernández C, D. González, E. De Luna y J. Mena-Portales. 2016

First Report of Pleoanamorphy in Gyrothrix verticiclada with an Idriella-Like Synanamorph. Cryptogamie, Mycologie 37(2): 241-252.


Pleoanamorphy with two types of conidia is reported for the first time in Gyrothrix verticiclada. The first conidial type has the normal morphology already known for G. verticiclada, but the second conidial type is identified here as an Idriella-like synanamorph. Both conidial types were isolated, then cultivated separately, photographed, and deposited in the Mycothèque de l'Université Catholique de Louvain (BCCM™/MUCL). The morphological similarities of both types of conidia were examined in comparison with conidia in other species of Idriella and Gyrothrix guided by a phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences from three gene regions and morphological data. Phylogenetic analyses were performed with maximum parsimony as the optimality criterion using the program TNT. Results indicated that one individual of Gyrothrix verticiclada is associated with Idriella cubensis and seven with species of both genera. Both types of conidia, Gyrothrix verticiclada (MUCL54065) and the Idriella-like synanamorph (MUCL54064) were recovered as homologous. In addition to knowledge about pleomorphism of G. verticiclada, a BLAST search was made using ITS and LSU sequences in order to find the teleomorphic relationship of G. verticiclada. The teleomorphic connection suggests a correspondence with named genera belonging to the order Xylariales.

Ramírez-Sánchez MM, E. De Luna y C. Cramer. 2016

Geometric and traditional morphometrics for the assessment of character state identity: multivariate statistical analyses of character variation in the water mite genus Arrenurus (Acari, Hydrachnidia, Arrenuridae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 177: 720–749.

Geometric and traditional morphometric approaches are tested to describe and reveal taxonomic characters and character states in variation of shape and size of idiosoma morphology in the Arrenuridae. Patterns of variation of idiosoma and glandularia features of males from 11 Mexican species of Arrenurus (Megaluracarus) and two species of subgenus Dadayella were explored with five landmark configurations and three sets of interlandmark distances. Separate principal component analyses (PCA) and canonical variate analyses (CVA) were performed for each data set. The eight multivariate analyses of variance among 13 a priori groups (species) detected significantly different morphometric variants, which were interpreted as different taxonomic character states. Patterns of character state similarity among species were examined with unweighted-pair grouping method using averages (UPGMA) cluster analyses on Mahalanobis distances. Analyses of five landmark configurations revealed important taxonomical variation in the anterior idiosoma outline (10 character states), the outline of the posterior region or cauda (13 states), the distribution of postocularia, and the second and third pairs of dorsoglandularia (nine states), the fourth pair of dorsoglandularia (three states), and ventroglandularia on the posterior side of idiosoma (nine character states). Multivariate analyses of three sets of distance measurements also resulted in the detection of potential taxonomic characters related to idiosoma size (12 character states), postocularia and dorsoglandularia (13 states), and ventroglandularia (nine character states). Morphometric analyses of distances and shapes provide a formal basis for the interpretation of taxonomic characters, and for the discovery of character states. These characters should be investigated further in a wider sample of species for the phylogenetic systematics of these water mites. In the meantime, idiosoma regions and structures were tested for congruence in a phylogenetic analysis, and were proposed as homologous among the species sampled.

 Additional keywords: cauda shape – character homology – glandularia – idiosoma shape – idiosoma size – Megaluracarus – taxonomic characters.
Figure 7. Shape variation in the dorsal view of the cauda outline (Data set 2). Scatterplot of
canonical variates scores (Root 1 versus Root 2), deformation grids of shape changes
relative to the mean shape are shown for both axes (A). Overall pattern of shape similarity
among 11 Megaluracarus species and two Dadayella species based on Mahalanobis
distances computed from the canonical variates analysis (B). All species resulted
significantly different from each other and therefore 13 character states were discovered in
the cauda outline. Branches in the UPGMA phenogram are labeled according to
discrimination order defined by the CVs. Symbols in the plot and in the phenogram are as
in Figure 6.
Figure. 14. Single most parsimonious tree selected in our phylogenetic analysis of the
combined morphometric data with TNT (score 95.8119). The character matrix included
continuous values of three distance sets and five landmark configurations. Only one shape
character, the cauda outline (Data set 2), is optimised in this tree. Landmark configurations
of the cauda shape at terminal nodes are those as observed in each species. The numbers on
each configuration indicate shapes that are significantly different, as evaluated by the CVA
and MANOVA for landmark Data set 2, as illustrated and labelled in Fig. 7B. In all
hypothetical landmark configurations of the cauda shape at internal nodes, deformation
vectors at each point indicate displacements relative to the ancestral shape as optimised
with TNT.

Ospina S., E De Luna, L. G. Herrera y J. J. Flores. 2016

Cranial shape and diet variation in Myotis species (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae): testing the relationship between form and function. ACTA CHIROPTEROLOGICA 18(1): 163-180.
doi: 10.3161/15081109ACC2016.18.1.007

Abstract: The relationship between cranial morphology and diet has long been investigated in bats. Bats of the genus Myotis include insectivorous, facultatively piscivorous, and piscivorous species. We tested the hypothesis that facultatively piscivorous (five Myotis species) and piscivorous species (M. vivesi) present cranial morphological and functional changes with respect to insectivorous taxa (16 Myotis species). Cranial shapes in skull and mandible modules were described with four geometric landmark configurations in these dietary groups. Gape capacity was measured with the stretch factors for temporal and masseter muscles. Geometric configurations from two skull and two mandible shapes were analyzed to detect differences in cranial morphology in relation to diet. Differences in cranial morphology were found between piscivorous and insectivorous species involving the mandibular process where masticatory muscles are attached. Linear regression analysis of Procrustes distances and gape capacity showed that the shape of the mandibular process region was highly correlated with the stretch factor of the masseter muscle in piscivorous and facultatively piscivorous species. These results suggest differences in cranial morphology and performance among diets but the hypothesis of gradual changes in cranial shape among diets was only accepted for the mandible and not for the skull. Myotis vivesi appears to improve mechanical advantage of masticatory muscles at lower gapes, presumably allowing more efficient chewing of slippery prey.

Key words: Myotis, geometric morphometrics, piscivory, stretch factor, masticatory muscles.

Quezada-Euán JJG, HD Sheets, E De Luna & T Eltz. 2015

Identification of cryptic species and morphotypes in male Euglossa: morphometric analysis of forewings (Hymenoptera: Euglossini). APIDOLOGIE 46 (6): 787-795.
DOI 10.1007/s13592-015-0369-7

Abstract. Males of sibling orchid bees Euglossa viridissima and Euglossa dilemma are morphologically cryptic, except for the number and shape of mandibular teeth. An alternative morph of E. viridissima has a third tooth similar to males of E. dilemma. We used this model system to evaluate the potential of wing morphometrics for the resolution of these groups. We found differences in the size characters of forewings of E. viridissima and E. dilemma albeit with substantial overlapping amongst them. However, geometric morphometrics of forewing vein intersections separated both species and, to a lesser extent, morphotypes. A discriminant analysis of the shape of the radial cell showed separation between all three groups, too, albeit with higher misclassification between E. viridissima and E. dilemma. We show that sibling cryptic species and morphotypes can be identified by geometric morphometrics, supporting its application with other methods as powerful aids to infrageneric taxonomy in bees.

Keywords: orchid bee cryptic species morphotypes geometric morphometrics forewing

Nájera-Cortazar LA, ST Álvarez-Castañeda and E De Luna. 2015

An Analysis of Myotis peninsularis (Vespertilionidae) Blending Morphometric and Genetic Datasets.

Nájera-Cortazar LA, ST Álvarez-Castañeda and E De Luna. 
Acta Chiropterologica 17(1):37-47. 2015

ABSTRACT. Myotis peninsularis Miller, 1898 is an endemic bat from the Cape Region in Baja California Sur, México. Its taxonomic status is unclear, either as a valid species or as a subspecies of M. velifer (J. A. Allen, 1890). In order to assess its taxonomic status, the objective of this study was to examine phylogenetic relationships of M. peninsularis, using molecular and geometric morphometric data. Two mitochondrial genes were analyzed: cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and cytochrome b (Cytb). The phylogenetic analysis (maximum likelihood and Bayesian Inference) showed that M. peninsularis and M. velifer were sister groups, collectively forming a monophyletic assemblage. We observed less than 2% of genetic distance in the Cytb, considered an interval at the subspecies level. The geometric morphometric analysis showed differences in skull shape. We obtained three morphotypes: M. peninsularis (Baja California group), M. velifer incautus (northern population) and M. v. velifer (southern population). The most important differences were located in the braincase (ventral, dorsal and lateral view). The lateral view was the most discriminating. The Cape Region specimens had the sagittal crest more procumbent in the front than the rear of the braincase. The slope line at the rostral lateral view was more abrupt in M. velifer populations. Morphologically, the three lineages tended to possess the same normal variation as the entire Mexican population of M. velifer but with a specific morphotype associated to its distribution. In a combined molecular and landmark configuration of the phylogenetic analysis, the ancestral shape corresponded to an intermediate shape between M. peninsularis and M. velifer, presenting a similar variation to the one of intra-specific level in M. velifer. We considered M. peninsularis a junior-synonym of M. velifer.

Received: February 19, 2015; Accepted: June 10, 2015

Fragoso-Martínez I, M. Martínez-Gordillo & E. De Luna. 2015

Salvia semiscaposa (Lamiaceae) a new species from Nanchititla, México. PHYTOTAXA 219 (1): 58-68.

A new species of Salvia section Lavanduloideae from the Estado de México is described and illustrated. Salvia semiscaposa is a procumbent plant morphologically similar to S. scaposa and S. helianthemifolia . It differs from the former by having mostly obovate leaf blades, more than six flowers per verticillaster and posterior calyx lobes narrower and apiculate. On the other hand, S. helianthemifolia differs from the new species by the presence of an erect stem, ovate leaves and trichomes on the calyx surface distributed only on the veins.

Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Salvia sección Lavanduloideae del Estado de México. Salvia semiscaposa es una planta procumbente morfológicamente similar a S. scaposa y S. helianthemifolia . De la primera difiere por presentar generalmente hojas obovadas, más de seis flores por verticilastro y lóbulos posteriores del cáliz más estrechos y apiculados. Por otro lado , S. helianthemifolia difiere de la especie nueva por la presencia de un tallo erecto, hojas ovadas y tricomas del cáliz presentes solamente en las venas.

Key words: multivariate analyses, Calosphace, geometric morphometrics